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 A Quick Revision through microbial nutrition

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Arjun
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PostSubject: A Quick Revision through microbial nutrition   Sat May 16, 2009 2:02 pm

Microbial Nutrition

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

This chapter
describes the basic nutritional requirements of microorganisms. Cells must have
a supply of raw materials and energy in order to construct new cellular
components. This chapter also describes the processes by which microorganisms
acquire nutrients and provides information about the cultivation of
microorganisms.


[b]CHAPTER OUTLINE
I. The Common Nutrient Requirements

A. Macroelements or macronutrients (C, O, H, N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) are required by microorganisms in relatively large amounts
B. Trace elements or micronutrients (Mn, Zn, Co, Mo, Ni, Cu) are
required in trace amounts by most cells and are often adequately
supplied in the water used to prepare the media or in the regular media
components
C. Other elements may be needed by particular types of microorganisms


II. Requirements for Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen-often satisfied together
A. Autotrophs use carbon dioxide as their sole or principal carbon source
B. Heterotrophs use reduced, preformed organic molecules (usually from other organisms) as carbon sources
C. Prototrophs are microorganisms requiring the same nutrients as most naturally occurring members of their species
D. Auxotrophs are mutated microorganisms that lack the ability to
synthesize an essential nutrient and therefore must obtain it or a
precursor from the surroundings


III. Nutritional Types of Microorganisms
A. Energy
1. Phototrophs use light as their energy source
2. Chemotrophs obtain energy from the oxidation of organic or inorganic compounds

B. Hydrogen/electrons
1. Lithotrophs use reduced inorganic compounds as their electron source
2. Organotrophs use reduced organic compounds as their electron source

C. Nutritional types of microorganisms-most microorganisms can be
categorized as belonging to one of four major nutritional types
depending on their sources of carbon, energy, and electrons:


1. Photolithotrophic autotrophs
2. Photoorganotrophic heterotrophs
3. Chemolithotrophic autotrophs
4. Chemoorganotrophic heterotrophs


D. Mixotrophic organisms combine autotrophic and heterotrophic
metabolic processes, relying on inorganic energy sources and organic
carbon sources
E. Chemolithotrophs contribute greatly to the chemical transformation of elements that continually occur in the ecosystem
F. Some organisms show great metabolic flexibility and alter their metabolic patterns in response to environmental changes

IV. Requirements for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur-can be met by
either organic or inorganic sources; some organisms have specific
requirements for sources of these elements while others are more general

V. Growth Factors-organic compounds required by the cell because
they are essential cell components (or precursors of these components)
that the cell cannot synthesize

A. Amino acids-needed for protein synthesis
B. Purines and pyrimidines-needed for nucleic acid synthesis
C. Vitamins-function as enzyme cofactors
D. Knowledge of specific growth factor requirements makes possible quantitative growth-response assays

VI. Uptake of Nutrients by the Cell

A. Passive diffusion-a phenomenon in which molecules move from an
area of high concentration to an area of low concentration because of
random thermal agitation
1. Requires a large concentration gradient for significant levels of uptake
2. Limited to only a few small useful molecules (e.g., glycerol,H2O, O2, and CO2)

B. Facilitated diffusion-a process that involves a carrier molecule
(permease) to increase the rate of diffusion; net effect is limited to
movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
concentration

1. Requires a smaller concentration gradient than passive diffusion
2. The rate plateaus when the carrier becomes saturated (i.e., when
it is binding and transporting molecules as rapidly as possible)
3. Generally more important in eucaryotes rather than procaryotes

C. Active transport-a process in which metabolic energy is used to
move molecules to the cell interior where the solute concentration is
already higher (i.e., it runs against the concentration gradient)

1. Characteristics of active transport

a. Saturable uptake rate
b. Requires an expenditure of metabolic energy
c. Can concentrate molecules inside the cell even when the
concentration inside the cell is already higher than that outside the
cell
2. ATP hydrolysis or protonmotive forces are the usual sources of metabolic energy
3. Types of active transport
a. Symport is the linked transport of two substances in the same direction
b. Antiport is the linked transport of two substances in opposite directions

D. Group translocation-a process in which molecules are modified as they are transported across the membrane
E. Iron uptake-the organism secretes siderophores that complex with
the very insoluble ferric ion, which is then transported into the cell


VII. Culture Media

A. Synthetic (defined) media are media in which all components and their concentrations are known
B. Complex media are media that contain some ingredients of unknown
composition and/or concentration; this type supplies amino acids,
vitamins, growth factors, and other nutrients
1. Peptones-protein hydrolysates prepared by partial proteolytic digestion of various protein sources
2. Extracts-aqueous extracts, usually of beef or yeast

C. Agar is a sulfated polymer used to solidify liquid media
D. Types of Media

1. General purpose media will support the growth of many microorganisms
2. Enriched media are supplemented by blood or other special nutrients to encourage the growth of fastidious heterotrophs
3. Selective media favor the growth of particular microorganisms and inhibits the growth of others
4. Differential media distinguish between different groups of bacteria on the basis of their biological characteristics

E. Some media can exhibit characteristics of more than one type
(e.g., blood agar is enriched and differential, and distinguishes
between hemolytic and nonhemolytic bacteria)

VIII. Isolation of pure cultures (a population of cells arising from
a single cell)-can be accomplished from mixtures by a variety of
procedures, including spread plates, streak plates, and pour plates

A. Colonies are macroscopically visible growths or clusters of microorganisms on solid media
B. Colony growth is most rapid at the colony's edge because oxygen
and nutrients are more available; growth is slowest at the colony's
center
C. Colony morphology helps microbiologists identify bacteria because
individual species often form colonies of characteristic size and
appearance

Some important questions:

1.list the ten elements that microorganisms require in large amounts
(macronutrients/macroelements) and the six elements that they require
in trace amounts (micronutrients)
2. list the major nutritional categories and give the source of carbon, energy, and hydrogen/electrons for each of the categories
3. compare the various processes (passive diffusion, facilitated
diffusion, active transport, group translocation) by which cells can
o4.btain nutrients from the environment
5. describe the various types of culture media for microorganisms
(synthetic, defined, selective, differential) and tell how each is
normally used in the study of microorganisms
6. describe the techniques used to obtain pure cultures (spread plate, streak plate, pour plate)
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Last edited by Arjun on Wed May 20, 2009 2:54 pm; edited 2 times in total
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PostSubject: Re: A Quick Revision through microbial nutrition   Mon May 18, 2009 3:52 pm

poda potta
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PostSubject: Re: A Quick Revision through microbial nutrition   Wed May 20, 2009 2:50 pm

admins are not supposed to use bad words...! you will be banned!
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PostSubject: Re: A Quick Revision through microbial nutrition   Fri May 22, 2009 4:25 pm

It was really helpful. I could learn microbial nutrition reading this. Its very good for quick revision. Thank you sweety.
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