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 some basics which we dont have ....................... :)

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PostSubject: some basics which we dont have ....................... :)   Tue Feb 17, 2009 1:56 pm

  • The
    RATE LAW for a reaction is a description of the rate of the reaction as it
    depends upon the concentrations of various species. It includes a rate
    constant, k(small k, not an equilibrium constant, K), which is equal to
    the rate of the reaction at unit concentrations of all reagents. As noted
    previously, it is a measure of the inherent rate of the reaction,
    independent of concentrations.

  • A
    first order rate law is one which depends upon the concentration of
    a single reactant taken to the first power, i.e., the rate is
    linearly dependent
    upon the concentration of that reagent. The order
    of the rate law is the sum of the exponents
    of all concentration
    expressions in the rate law.

  • The
    rate law for the SN1 reaction is first order, depending only
    upon the concentration of the alkyl halide, and not at all upon the
    concentration of the nucleophile. That is because the first step is the
    rate determining one
    . The subsequent step which involves the
    nucleophile is very fast.

  • The
    "1" of SN1 is the molecularity (the number of
    molecules present) of the rate determining step, in which only the alkyl
    halide is involved.

  • In
    contrast, the SN2 reaction is second order, depending
    upon the concentrations of both the alkyl halide and the nucleophile, each
    linearly. The rate determining step (indeed the only step) is bimolecular,
    so that the mechanistic designation is SN2.

  • The
    reason the rate of this reaction is dependent upon the concentrations of
    both reactants is simply that they must collide in order to react.
    The number of collisions between the two reagents is directly proportional
    to the concentrations of both.

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